Lake and Peninsula Borough
Non-Unified Home Rule Borough
- Area Type
- Current Population
- Population Comment
- 2013 DCCED Certified Estimate
- Pronunciation/Other Names
- Community's Judicial District
- Census Designated Place (CDP)
- Borough/Census Area FIPS Code
Geography and Climate
- The Lake & Peninsula Borough is located on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest of Anchorage. It is comprised of 17 communities, including 6 incorporated cities. It is bordered on the west by Bristol Bay and on the east by the Gulf of Alaska.
- The area experiences a transitional climate. Average summer temperatures range from 42 to 62 °F; winter temperatures range from 6 to 30 °F. Annual precipitation averages 24 inches, with 50 inches of snow.
- Community Map Available
- Sq Mi Land
- Sq Mi Water
History and Culture
- The Lake and Peninsula Borough region has been inhabited almost continuously for the past 9,000 years. The area is rich in cultural resources and diversity. Yup'ik Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascan Indians, and Inupiaq people have jointly occupied the area for the past 6,000 years. Russian explorers came to the region during the late 1700s. The late 1800s brought the first influx of non-Native fishermen and cannery operations. A flu epidemic in 1918 was tragic to the Native population. Reindeer were introduced to assist the survivors, but the experiment eventually failed. In the 1930s, additional disease epidemics further decimated villages. After the Japanese attack on Dutch Harbor during World War II, numerous military facilities were constructed on the Alaska Peninsula, including Fort Marrow at Port Heiden. The borough was incorporated in 1989.
- Commercial fishing and fish processing are the most significant sectors of the economy within the borough, which contains three of the state's most important salmon fishing districts: Egegik and Ugashik on Bristol Bay and Chignik on the Pacific coast. The majority of borough residents rely upon commercial fishing as a primary source of cash income. Seven shore-based processors and numerous floating processors operate within borough boundaries, generally importing their workforce from outside the borough. Tourism and recreational activities are the second most important industries in the borough and are rapidly increasing in economic importance. The borough contains over 60 hunting and fishing lodges. Approximately 100 professional guides are registered to operate within borough boundaries. Government services also provide employment. Subsistence hunting and fishing are important to year-round residents.
- Federally Recognized Tribe
Facilities, Utilities, and Health Care
- Municipal Facilities & Utilities
- The Lake and Peninsula Borough contains seventeen small and widely scattered communities. Only two, Iliamna and Newhalen, are connected by road. There are two regional roads located in the borough: the Iliamna - Nondalton Road and the Williamsport - Pile Bay Road. Scheduled air service provides transportation of passengers to the region's hubs in Iliamna and King Salmon. Air taxi and charter service transport passengers from the hubs to local communities. Heavy cargo and durable goods are transported to borough communities by ship, barge, or ferry. Chignik is the only community served by the Alaska Marine Highway System, which calls on the community about six times per year, beginning in April and ending in October. The Williamsport - Pile Bay Road provides access from the Pacific side of the borough to the Iliamna Lake communities. Perishable goods and time-value cargo are shipped by air, typically through King Salmon, Iliamna, or Port Heiden.
- State Ferry
- Cargo Barge
- Road Connection
- Community's Senate District
- Community's House District
- Incorporation Type
- Non-Unified Home Rule Borough